background: half of hypertensive patients with low plasma renin activity have a primary hyperaldosteronism. among the remaining half, 11？-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11？hsd2) deficiency plays an important role. this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to cortisone, avoiding the interaction of cortisol with the mineralocorticoid receptor. if the enzyme fails, cortisol will stimulate sodium and water reabsorption and increase blood pressure. aim: to determine biochemical alterations, suggestive of 11？hsd2 deficiency, in low-renin hypertensive patients. patients and methods: twenty eight hypertensive patients with a plasma renin activity of less than ng/ml/h and with a plasma aldosterone of less than 5 ng/dl were studied. twenty eight normotensive patients were studied as controls. serum cortisol (ria), cortisone (elisa) and the serum cortisol/cortisone ratio were determined in all of them, between 9 and 10 am. measurements were confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatography. the serum cortisol/cortisone ratio was considered abnormal when its ln (cortisol/cortisone) value was over 2 standard deviations of the mean. results: serum cortisol was higher in hypertensive subjects than in controls (± and ± μg/dl, respectively; p
A 2016 case before the Family Court of Australia  was widely reported in national,    and international media.  The judge ruled that parents were able to authorize the sterilization of their 5-year old child. The child had previously been subjected to intersex medical interventions including a clitorectomy and labiaplasty , without requiring Court oversight - these were described by the judge as having "enhanced the appearance of her female genitalia".  Organisation Intersex International Australia found this "disturbing", and stated that the case was reliant on gender stereotyping and failed to take account of data on cancer risks.