Antibody levels and response to pneumococcal vaccine in steroid-dependent asthma

No. ANAs can be found in approximately 5% of the normal population, usually in low titers (low levels). These people usually have no disease. Titers of 1:80 or lower are less likely to be significant. (ANA titers of less than or equal to 1:40 are considered negative.) Even higher titers are often insignificant in patients over 60 years of age. Ultimately, the ANA result must be interpreted in the specific context of an individual patient's symptoms, underlying medical conditions, and other test results. It may or may not be significant, even if positive, in a given individual.

Antibody: An immunoglobulin, a specialized immune protein , produced because of the introduction of an antigen into the body, and which possesses the remarkable ability to combine with the very antigen that triggered its production. The production of antibodies is a major function of the immune system and is carried out by a type of white blood cell called a B cell (B lymphocyte ). Antibodies can be triggered by and directed at foreign proteins, microorganisms, or toxins . Some antibodies are autoantibodies and home in against our own tissues. The term "antibody" dates to 1901. Prior to that time, an "antibody" referred to any of a host of different substances that served as "bodies" (foot soldiers) in the fight against infection and its ill effects.

During acute HIV infection, prior to the appearance of antibody (window period or pre-seroconversion), HIV infection can be confirmed only by the demonstration of circulating p24 antigen, or by the presence of viral RNA or DNA. Although highly sensitive antibody assays exist to detect very low levels of HIV antibody in blood, the window period prior to appearance of antibody rarely can be shortened to less than 3 weeks. Once antibody has appeared, titers progressively increase during 3-5 months until levels peak, at which time they remain fairly constant throughout the remainder of infection. Also, antibodies during early infection usually are of low avidity, but avidity increases as infection progresses. Therefore, HIV infection can be divided into categories of recent or established infection, depending on the quantity of antibody present or their avidities. These parameters can be exploited as tools in order to estimate the relative time that HIV infection occurred. For example, if antibody titers or antibody avidity is low, it is likely that infection occurred within the past 4 months; conversely, high-titer or high-avidity antibodies signal an established infection that has been present for longer than 4 months. Several epidemiological studies have used the S/LS testing strategy to predict incidence in San Francisco and in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.( 6-8 )

Antibodies are produced in the lymphoid tissues of the body, . LYMPH NODES , by a type of LYMPHOCYTE called B-CELLS . Most antibodies are produced during exposure to an antigen, such a response being termed active immunity. Specific antibodies to rare or synthetic antigens can be manufactured as easily as those to common antigens. A few antibodies are produced even without the apparent presence of the appropriate antigen. Such ‘natural’ antibodies include several involved in blood grouping, . A and B antibodies in the ABO BLOOD GROUP . Young mammals have limited capacity to produce antibodies in the first few weeks of life, but can obtain some passive immunity by receiving maternal antibodies via the mother's milk. This fact has been used to encourage human mothers to breast-feed their infants rather than bottle-feed. Most antibodies circulate in the blood and other body fluids, but most if not all body secretions also contain antibodies, mainly of the IgA type; See IMMUNOGLOBULIN .

Antibody levels and response to pneumococcal vaccine in steroid-dependent asthma

antibody levels and response to pneumococcal vaccine in steroid-dependent asthma

Antibodies are produced in the lymphoid tissues of the body, . LYMPH NODES , by a type of LYMPHOCYTE called B-CELLS . Most antibodies are produced during exposure to an antigen, such a response being termed active immunity. Specific antibodies to rare or synthetic antigens can be manufactured as easily as those to common antigens. A few antibodies are produced even without the apparent presence of the appropriate antigen. Such ‘natural’ antibodies include several involved in blood grouping, . A and B antibodies in the ABO BLOOD GROUP . Young mammals have limited capacity to produce antibodies in the first few weeks of life, but can obtain some passive immunity by receiving maternal antibodies via the mother's milk. This fact has been used to encourage human mothers to breast-feed their infants rather than bottle-feed. Most antibodies circulate in the blood and other body fluids, but most if not all body secretions also contain antibodies, mainly of the IgA type; See IMMUNOGLOBULIN .

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