A-Rod, Lance Armstrong, Jose Canseco, Rashard Lewis, Shawne Merriman. The list of superstar athletes accused of -- or admitting to -- taking performance-enhancing drugs is almost as impressive as the number of sports in which they compete. It's not just weightlifting, baseball and cycling. It's football, track and field, swimming, soccer and basketball . And it's not restricted to males -- or to professionals. Just ask former Olympic track star Marion Jones. Or the nine high school athletes in Texas caught using performance-enhancing drugs during the 2011-2012 academic year.
Because the relationship between long-term androgen use and gynecological health is not yet fully understood, and because many trans men often experience embarrassment and/or access issues over obtaining ongoing gynecological care, some may feel it is appropriate to pursue such surgeries as a preventative measure. Always discuss the latest medical research and the pros and cons of these procedures with your doctor. For more information on hysterectomy, oophorectomy, PCOS, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer see the hysterectomy and oophorectomy page on this web site.
DOC's primary purpose is to regulate electrolytes. However, it has other effects, such as to remove potassium from leucocytes  and muscle,  depress glycogen formation  and to stimulate copper containing lysyl oxidase enzyme  and connective tissue,  which attributes may be used by the body to help survive during potassium wasting intestinal diseases.  The greater efficiency of DOC in permitting sodium excretion (or perhaps it should be expressed as inefficiency at retention) must be partly through morphological changes in the kidney cells because escape from DOC's sodium retention takes several days to materialize, and when it does, these cells are much more efficient at unloading sodium if sodium is then added than cells accustomed to a prior low intake. Thus, paradoxically, a low salt intake should be protective against loss of sodium in perspiration.